In psychiatry, diagnosis reliability is instrumental for proper management of medications and treatments. Going along with this, The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is searching for neurobiological measures that account for observed and reported symptoms. The purpose of this study was to find neurobiomarkers that account for medication failure in 386 refractory clinical cases. The results found 4 such measures that could explain why medication failed in each of the refractory cases: encephalopathy, focal slowing, beta spindles, and transient discharges. The study found positive correlations between number of mediations prescribed and the number of neurobiomarkers identified in children and adolescents. A positive correlation between number of medications prescribed and number of diagnosis was found in adults.

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Key words: NIMH, Research Domain Criteria Project; neurobiomarkers, medication failure, DSM